Time Chart for Iran and Iraq

Derived in part from reading:

Also see:

Several recent history books lack a time line, including these dates. I added USA presidents because US foreign policy shifts with the changes of presidents. [Editorial opinions are in parentheses.]:

About 4000 B.C.E. Aryans overrun Iran; the name 'Iran' is from 'Aryan'.
334 B.C.E. Alexander marches into Iran (called Persia by the Greeks) and sacks Persepolis.
1722 Afghanis overrun Iran.
1747 Turkish Qajar dynasty begins its rule of Iran.
1882 Mohammed Mossadegh born.
1901 Theodore Roosevelt inaugurated as USA President #26 (1901-1909).
Geologist George Reynolds receives the exclusive rights to search for oil in Iran, in exchange for "£20,000, an equal amount of shares in his company, and a promise of 16% of future profits".
1908 After seven years of finding wells that ran dry, Reynolds finds a gusher of May 26, 1908 by drilling into "the greatest oil field ever found.".
A new company, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, is formed to absorb the existing concession.
1909 William H. Taft inaugurated as USA President #27 (1909-1913).
1913 Woodrow Wilson inaugurated as USA President #28 (1913-1921).
Winston Churchill, as First Lord of the British Admiralty, gets the British government to spend £2 million to buy 51% of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. Churchill foresees that this oil will be vital to fuel British war machinery in World War I.
1914 Start of World War I.
1918 End of World War I.
1921 Warren G. Harding inaugurated as USA President #29 (1921-1923).
1923 Vice-President Calvin Coolidge inaugurated as USA President #30 (1923-1929). on the death of President Warren G. Harding (1921-1923).
1925 Internal overthrown of Iran's (Turkish) Qajar dynasty.
1926 Reza Shah assumed the Peacock throne.
Mohammed Mossadegh re-elected to the Majlis (Iranian parliament).
1928 Mohammed Mossadegh is defeated in the elections. So are all others who opposed the policies of Reza Shah. (Reza Shah gave orders that the vote counting should produce such results.)
1929 Herbert C. Hoover inaugurated as USA President #31 (1929-1933).
1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt inaugurated as USA President #32 (1933-1945).
Agreement between the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and Reza Shah.
1936 Start of Spanish Civil War.
1939 End of Spanish Civil War.
Start of World War II.
1941 Reza Shah ("a harsh tyrant but also a visionary reformer") is forced to abdicate from his throne by the British, because Reza Shah supports Hitler (as well as Franco and Mussolini), letting hundreds of German agents operate in Iran.
21-year-old Mohammed Reza succeeded his father as Shah.
1943 In the absence of Reza Shah, the 1943 election is the first free election for many years. Mohammed Mossadegh emerges from his retreat and is elected.
1945 Vice-President Harry S. Truman inaugurated as USA President #33 (1945-1953) on the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945).
End of World War II.
1946 Stalin ignores agreement to withdraw forces from Iran six months after the end of World War II hostilities. The Red Army remains in Azerbaijan (Iran's northern province).

Riots at the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's oil refinery at Abadan. Many Iranians rally to support the workers.

1947 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company allows Iran a little less than 20% of its after-tax profits.
1948 Israel proclaimed as the Jewish national republic, and is located on part of the land of Palestine.
1949 The Majlis (Iranian parliament) demand a better deal for Iran from the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. Ten politicians submit a bill to revoke the 1933 agreement signed by Reza Shah.
1950 Start of Korean War.
1951 Mohammed Mossadegh nationalizes the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
He speaks in defense of Iran's rights over its oil before the U.N. security council, is warmly received by President Harry Truman in Washington, D.C., and is recognized by Time as its Man of 1951.

Meanwhile Winston Churchill campaigns successfully for re-election as British Prime Minister, in large part on a belligerent stance against Iran.

1952 End of Korean War.

Dwight Eisenhower elected President of USA.
Churchill's people start working with the incoming team to develop a plan to overthrow Mohammed Mossadegh and restore western control of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.

Early 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower inaugurated as USA President #34 (1953-1961).
The Dulles brothers run not only the overt American Foreign policy (John Foster Dulles is Eisenhower's Secretary of State) but also the covert policy (Allen Dulles is Director of the CIA). They motivate Eisenhower by presenting Iran as in danger from being taken over by the Soviet Union.

Death of Joseph Stalin. His successor is eventually the relatively moderate Khrushchev, who will bring a less aggressive foreign policy to the Kremlin. This change, however, does not happen soon enough to stop the Iran plans of the CIA.

19 August 1953 CIA-sponsored coup in Iran, overthrowing Mohammed Mossadegh, the elected and popular prime minister of Iran. Led by CIA agent Kermit Roosevelt, grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt, the plot is code-named Operation Ajax: "estimates of the final cost range from $100,000 to $20 million, depending on which expenses are counted."
1961 John F. Kennedy inaugurated as USA President #35 (1961-1963).
1963 Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson inaugurated as USA President #36 (1963-1969) on the death of President John F. Kennedy (1961-1963).
1967 Death of Mohammed Mossadegh.
1969 Richard M. Nixon inaugurated as USA President #37 (1969-1974).
1971 Three-day celebration of the founding of the Persian Empire and costing over $300 million.
1974 Gerald Ford inaugurated as USA President #38 (1974-1977), following resignation of President Richard Nixon (to avoid impeachment).
1977 Jimmy Carter inaugurated as USA President #39 (1977-1981).
Carter threatened to cut arms shipments to Iran if it did not improve human rights.
Iran released political prisoners, decreased its censorship, and began a reform of the court system.
1979 Iranian Islamic Revolution, led by Islamic fundamentalists, deposes Mohammed Reza Shah, who flees abroad.
Hatred of the decades of western control of its politics and its oil explode in this revolution.
Ayatollah Khomeini returns from abroad and becomes the supreme spiritual leader of Iran.
4th November: Iranian Islamic Students storm the U.S. embassy, take 66 hostages (mainly Americans).
1980 Saddam Hussein leads Iraq to attack Iran. He has the support of the U.S.A. and other nations.
Ayatollah Khomeini is recognized by Time as its Man of 1980.
1981 Ronald Reagan inaugurated as USA President #40 (1981-1989).
On January 20, Iran releases the remaining hostages in the US embassy, in exchange for money and weaponry. The deal was negotiated behind the back of the previous President, Jimmy Carter.
1982 Iranian troops recaptured their territory from Iraqi.
1988 Iran and Iraq signed a cease fire and accepted UN Resolution 598.
1989 George Bush inaugurated as USA President #41 (1989-1993).
Ayatollah Khomeini dies of of a heart attack.
1990-1991 Iran condemns (1) Iraq's invasion in Kuwait; (2) the USA-led alliance that attacked Iraq.
1993 Bill Clinton inaugurated as USA President #42 (1993-2001).
1997 Mohammad Khatami (a reformist cleric) is elected to lead Iran, winning 69% of the vote.
2000 Madeline Albright, U.S. Secretary of State to President Bill Clinton, makes the USA's official acknowledgment of its "significant role in orchestrating the overthrow of Iran's popular prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh. ... It is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America in their internal affairs."
2001 George W. Bush inaugurated as USA President #43 (2001-2009)
[Ed.There is considerable appearance that Bush's win of the electoral college votes of the state of Florida, where his brother Jeb Bush is Governor, was manipulated. Despite the perhaps illegal win of Florida, Bush still loses the 2001 popular vote, which goes to Al Gore.]
2004 At the end of 2004, the USA's G. W. Bush administration bristles at even the simplest verbal comments from abroad. It is either ignorant of this history, or hypocritical about interfering in the affairs of other countries.